Challenges and Strategies Facing International Students and Faculty in U.S. Higher Education: A Comprehensive Literature Review
With increasing numbers of international students on university campuses in the U.S., culturally and linguistically responsive (CLR) practices become more important than ever in helping students fit in a new environment and achieve their academic goals. However, not all universities and faculty are prepared or equipped with the knowledge to adopt CLR methods in classrooms across the disciplines. The purpose of this literature review is three-fold: (1) to examine the cultural and linguistic challenges that international students face in U.S. higher institutions; (2) to investigate faculty’s perspectives on international students and implementing CLR practices in their classroom teaching; and (3) to explore CLR strategies or recommendations that have been used successfully to alleviate the challenges. In assessing the current status of CLR in tertiary education, this article reviewed 21 research studies and found that both international students and faculty at U.S. institutions of higher education are facing challenges in terms of language, culture, classroom discussions, academic expectations, and interpersonal relationships. These findings hold implications for promoting the development of CLR practices among faculty and tertiary institutions to foster a diverse campus capable of truly accommodating and supporting students from multicultural backgrounds.
international students, culturally and linguistically responsive practices, challenges, faculty